• The Spirits' Book

    • Book Two - The Spirit World

      • Chapter XI - The Three Kingdoms

        • Animals and Humans

595. Do animals have free will with respect to their actions?

“They are not machines, but their freedom of action is limited to their needs and cannot be compared to that of humans. They do not have the same duties as those of humans because they are extremely inferior to them. The freedom of action of animals is restricted to the actions of their material life only.”

Source: Kardecpedia